Category Archives: Graduate Coursework

Correspondence with undergraduate student who is a potential future professor

I shared this with one of my students who is potentially a future professor:

That is wonderful. Let me know if you want any guidance on your career. If your goal is to be a tenure-track assistant professor of exceptional education it will be a long journey but possibly very fulfilling and it’s possible to arrive with very little student loan debt depending on whether you can live with parents, other family, or roommates. We have an Exceptional Education Track in the Education Ph.D. program here at UCF [University of Central Florida]. I did my Education Ph.D. in the Instructional Design & Technology track here with full funding as a Graduate Teaching Assistant/Associate which includes free tuition, health insurance, and pay of $18,500 per year. You have to get your Bachelor’s and Master’s first and you may also want to teach K–12 for 2–3 years because many professor openings require this.

– Dr. Thripp

Doctoral Graduation Photos

Here is a video and several photos from my graduation at University of Central Florida on December 13, 2019, for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Education. What a wonderful day!

Thanks to my advisor Dr. Richard Hartshorne, my wife Kristy, and the preservice teachers, faculty, and staff at UCF that made my research possible, as well as Dr. Gary Mottola at the FINRA Investor Education Foundation and other academics who provided feedback on my dissertation, A Survey of Investing and Retirement Knowledge and Preferences of Florida Preservice Teachers.

The above video is the official complete video of the morning commencement session. I appear at 1:08:56 in the video. It should start at this point when played.

Hooding
Above: Hooding

Richard Thripp On Stage
Above: Richard Thripp On Stage

Richard Thripp On Stage, Panorama
Above: Richard Thripp On Stage, Panorama

Richard Thripp Hugs Advisor, Dr. Richard Hartshorne
Above: Richard Thripp Hugs Advisor, Dr. Richard Hartshorne

Richard and Kristy Thripp's Son, Ricky (Richard Carter Thripp, 9 Months Old)
Above: Richard and Kristy Thripp’s Son, Ricky (Richard Carter Thripp, 9 Months Old)

Richard Thripp Holding Diploma Outside, 1st Photo
Above: Richard Thripp Holding Diploma Outside, 1st Photo

Richard Thripp Holding Diploma Outside, 2nd Photo
Above: Richard Thripp Holding Diploma Outside, 2nd Photo

Richard, Kristy, and Ricky, 1st Photo
Above: Richard, Kristy, and Ricky, 1st Photo

Richard, Kristy, and Ricky, 2nd Photo
Above: Richard, Kristy, and Ricky, 2nd Photo

Richard Thripp and Son
Above: Richard Thripp and Son

The photos below are from GradImages, the university’s official photography service. I have purchased these but am still waiting for the high-resolution copies.

GradImages: Dean Pamela Carroll and Richard Thripp
Above: GradImages: Dean Pamela Carroll and Richard Thripp

GradImages: Richard Thripp Holding Degree, 1st Photo
Above: GradImages: Richard Thripp Holding Degree, 1st Photo

GradImages: Richard Thripp and Advisor, Dr. Richard Hartshorne
Above: GradImages: Richard Thripp and Advisor, Dr. Richard Hartshorne

GradImages: Portrait of Richard Thripp
Above: GradImages: Portrait of Richard Thripp

GradImages: Richard Thripp Holding Degree, 2nd Photo
Above: GradImages: Richard Thripp Holding Degree, 2nd Photo

GradImages: Hooding, 1st Photo
Above: GradImages: Hooding, 1st Photo

GradImages: Hooding, 2nd Photo
Above: GradImages: Hooding, 2nd Photo

GradImages: Richard Thripp and UCF Mascot, Knightro
Above: GradImages: Richard Thripp and UCF Mascot, Knightro

I will continue in Spring 2020 to teach EME 2040: Introduction to Technology for Educators to future teachers at UCF, as an adjunct faculty member. I will also be writing articles and further exploring the survey data I collected for my dissertation, A Survey of Investing and Retirement Knowledge and Preferences of Florida Preservice Teachers.

Announcing the Final Examination of Richard Thripp for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

It has been a busy season for us with our eight-month-old son and completing my Ph.D. dissertation on the financial knowledge of Florida preservice teachers. Here is my official dissertation defense announcement, due to take place on November 7, 2019.

UCF College of Community Innovation and Education logo

Announcing the Final Examination of Richard Thripp for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Thursday, November 7, 2019 at 2:00 PM
University of Central Florida, Main Campus (Orlando)
Education Complex, Room 306

Dissertation Title: A Survey of Investing and Retirement Knowledge and Preferences of Florida Preservice Teachers

This dissertation investigated the financial and retirement knowledge, concerns, and preferences of preservice teachers at the University of Central Florida. The author developed a 39-item survey instrument and administered it to 314 preservice teachers in undergraduate teacher education courses in Summer and Fall 2019, who were primarily female elementary and early childhood education juniors and seniors. Topics covered included familiarity with plans, preference for pension plans versus defined contribution plan or increased salary, concern over pension vesting requirements, knowledge of the Florida Retirement System, anticipated challenges in funding retirement, financial knowledge, concerns about debts, and retirement investment preferences using a mock portfolio allocation exercise. For comparison, an electronic version of the survey was administered to 205 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers for $1.00 each, who were U.S. college students or graduates ages 18–25. Findings showed that preservice teachers had statistically significantly lower financial knowledge and retirement investing literacy; even those who were Age 25 or younger chose to put more than half their retirement money in money market and bond funds, which will almost certainly underperform equities over several decades. Although it may be ill-advised, 54% of preservice teachers preferred a defined-contribution plan over a pension plan. Preservice teachers were not particularly concerned about debts, but anticipated that low salaries will impede their ability to save for retirement. These findings suggest a need for financial education targeting Florida preservice teachers, particularly given that the Florida Retirement System substantially cut its benefits in 2011.

Major: Education Ph.D., Instructional Design & Technology
B. S. University of Central Florida, 2014
M. A. University of Central Florida, 2016

Committee in charge:
Dr. Richard Hartshorne
Dr. Debbie L. Hahs-Vaughn
Dr. Bobby Hoffman
Dr. Shiva Jahani
Dr. Gary Mottola

Approved by Dr. Richard Hartshorne, Committee Chair

The public is welcome to attend.


Keywords: financial literacy, preservice teachers, Florida Retirement System, retirement knowledge, financial challenges, plan preferences, investor behavior, nonwage benefits

Acknowledgments

I extend heartfelt thanks to Dr. Richard Hartshorne, my adviser, supervisor, dissertation chair, mentor, and friend, who gave me timely and valuable feedback, opportunities, and support at each step in my doctoral and teaching journey at the university, particularly as I developed my fervor for financial education and research. He was always patient even when I abandoned projects, missed deadlines, and delivered flurries of ill-conceived ideas and horrendous drafts. I also thank my fiancée, Kristy White, for providing invaluable support, particularly as we are new parents to a handsome baby boy born in February 2019. Working with my other committee members, Drs. Gary Mottola, Bobby Hoffman, Debbie L. Hahs-Vaughn, and Shiva Jahani, has been most helpful and instructive. I am appreciative of the opportunities, support, and resources I have been afforded at University of Central Florida over these past seven years. When in 2012 I set out to go back to school and earn my Bachelor’s in psychology, I had no idea I would end up coming this far. Thank you, Drs. Bobby Hoffman, Atsusi Hirumi, and Richard Hartshorne for accepting me to the Applied Learning and Instruction M.A. and Education Ph.D. programs, as well as Dr. Ronald DeMara from the College of Engineering and Computer Science. My favorite part of my time at UCF was instructing over 250 preservice teachers in educational technology as a Graduate Teaching Associate. Bringing a love of learning to others, at a massive scale, is an integral part of our identity and mission as Knights. Finally, I am profoundly thankful to the UCF students and Amazon Mechanical Turk workers who participated in this survey, as well as Drs. Junie Albers-Biddle, Kelsey Evans-Amalu, Regina Gresham, Marni Kay, Nevine Snyder, Lee-Anne Trimble Spalding, Cheryl Van De Mark, Scott Waring, and Anna Wolford for allowing me to visit their courses, without which this dissertation would not have been possible.

Announcement on IGI Global Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K–12 Online and Blended Learning

Book Cover

I am proud to announce the release of our new Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K–12 Online and Blended Learning published by IGI Global.

Heafner, T. L., Hartshorne, R., & Thripp, R. (Eds.). (2019). Handbook of research on emerging practices and methods of K–12 online and blended learning. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8009-6

My statement on the handbook:
I worked extensively on editing the handbook for writing quality, fact-checking, and APA style. At the same time, I enjoyed learning about virtual schools and blended learning across the country. There is something for everyone in this handbook—teachers, administrators, teacher educators, instructional designers, program and curriculum developers, and more. The researchers and practitioners in this compendium are at the cutting edge of fully online and blended learning pedagogies, practices, and technologies, not only in teaching K–12 students and preservice teachers, but also in offering professional development workshops on moving coursework online, stimulating critical thought, and facilitating deep learning. The handbook is rounded out with chapters with case studies in online pedagogies, tools, and strategies for specific subject areas, such as mathematics, science, and social studies. As K–12 learning is increasingly centered around online technologies and resources, this handbook is both timely and relevant, particularly with respect to the nationwide deficit in K–12 online teaching courses, certificates, programs, and continuing education opportunities.

Autobiographical statement:
Richard Thripp is a doctoral candidate and graduate teaching associate in the College of Community Innovation and Education at the University of Central Florida. He has instructed over 200 students in EME 2040: Introduction to Technology for Educators on the use of Web technologies in K–12 teaching practice. Richard’s primary research interest is in the improvement of individual financial literacy through education and behavioral approaches. He holds an M.A. in Applied Learning and Instruction and a certificate in Advanced Quantitative Methodologies in Educational and Human Sciences from the University of Central Florida.

Closing the Gaps for Gender and Socioeconomic Equality in the US and Bangladesh

This is my final paper, completed on 2018-04-25, for Dr. Judit Szente‘s course, EDF 6855: Equitable Educational Opportunity & Life Chances: A Cross-National Analysis, at University of Central Florida. It builds on my 2018-03-01 midterm paper, Women and Children in Bangladesh: The Effects of the Grameen Bank, the World Bank, and the Global Partnership for Education.


Closing the Gaps for Gender and Socioeconomic Equality in the US and Bangladesh
Richard Thripp
University of Central Florida

The purpose of this paper is to document gaps in gender equality, socioeconomic status, language, and race in the United States and Bangladesh, with a focus on diverse children and educational inequities. Then, an action plan is suggested for both countries. While the US is highly developed, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, a densely populated South Asian country that borders India, is a United Nation’s “least developed country,” with many of the 163 million residents living in poverty. Nevertheless, there are many inequities in both countries.

Status Report

Here, I will discuss the current status of several equity issues in the US and Bangladesh.

The United States of America

Status of gender equality.

Pay and occupational power. At upper levels of corporations, organizations, and government, women are very much unrepresented (Barreto, Ryan, & Schmitt, 2009). Women are often not able to succeed due to discrimination, stereotypes, and childcare. Although the gender pay gap has narrowed during 1970–2000, this trend has stopped in the 21st century (Mandel & Semyonov, 2014), suggesting that further progress will be more difficult. While blatant economic discrimination is disappearing or going underground, the portion that remains is often due to childcare or other expectations reducing hours worked and constraining women’s schedules. Additionally, in the public sector, gender segregation is still widespread (Mandel & Semyonov, 2014).

Education. US achievement falls short compared to Finland, and students with lower income and minorities have worse outcomes (Spitzer & Aronson, 2015). Although females are better at writing, earn better grades, and earn more college degrees than males, they tend to become uninterested and unconfident in their abilities for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects as they move through secondary school (Spitzer & Aronson, 2015). This “math anxiety” is reinforced by sociocultural stereotypes of females being bad at mathematics, results in poor performance particularly on timed, high-stakes tests, and reinforces gender inequity over the long term, as it prevents many females from entering high-paying professions for which STEM skills are prerequisites.

Socioeconomic status. Equality of socioeconomic status has been deteriorating since the 1970s, with the wealthiest 1% accumulating an ever-increasing share of American wealth (Saez & Zucman, 2014). At the same time, the majority of Americans are saving little (the savings rate was actually negative during 1998–2008), taking on debt, and failing to invest in bonds, equities, or their retirement funds (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2007, 2011). Commonly reported measures conceal the inequality by focusing on median income rather than the median–mean gap in accumulation of wealth.[1] Low socioeconomic status has a negative effect on outcomes for women, children, and families. Even when looking at income, the US’s Gini coefficient, a measure of income dispersion (Yitzhaki, 1979), was 41 in 2013, indicating more inequality than many other countries including Bangladesh.

Issues related to language.

Language. The US has a large Spanish-speaking population, but research shows that they face inequity, even as early as kindergarten, where Spanish-speaking English learners are less than half as likely to be reclassified as English proficient than speakers of other languages (Slama, 2014). Additionally, about 22% of the sample Salma (2014) studied had to re-take kindergarten, and many more had academic difficulties later in primary school.

Numeracy. Another literacy issue is numeracy, or the ability to understand and work with numbers. Among American adults, 29% are below minimum levels of numeracy proficiency (UNESCO, 2017, p. 200),[2] with greater proportions being numerically illiterate among minorities, the poor, and the less educated. Overall, literacy on all fronts is a vital issue that contributes to civic engagement, friendships, financial gains, and parenting (UNESCO, 2016), and therefore, more focus on equity here is essential to tackling inequities in the US.

Issues related to race. In the US, race arguably sits at the intersection of academic self-efficacy, gender, socioeconomic status, and status as an immigrant (Bécares & Priest, 2015; Bondy, Peguero, & Johnson, 2017). Racial and ethnic minorities have a clear academic achievement gap, with immigrants, blacks, and Hispanic students faring worse. Overall, there is much progress left to be made in ensuring equity for these disadvantaged groups.

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Status of gender equality. Bangladesh is poor, highly populous, and prone to floods and cyclones, which often impact women and children worse, perpetuating inequality (UNESCO, 2016, p. 33). Although female educational attainment is rising, which has also had the positive outcome of reducing birth rates (UNESCO, 2016, p. 83), there is still a long way to go toward equality. For instance, wealthy Bangladeshi women are four times as likely to receive prenatal care than poor women (UNICEF, 2016, p. 20). Young girls are often married off before adulthood, and girls often have less access to education. However, on the positive side, Bangladesh is the home of the Grameen Bank (2018), a micro-lending institution that focuses on aiding women with their small businesses at relatively low interest rates. Nonetheless, although school attendance is up, thanks in part to the work of the Global Partnership for Education (2018), the World Bank, and UNESCO, Bangladeshi culture perpetuates gender inequality by discouraging school attendance as unfeminine, in part because of Islamic traditions (Miaji, 2010; Sarker & Salam, 2011).

Socioeconomic status. Inequality in socioeconomic status in Bangladesh is moderate (Gini coefficient of 32 as of 2010, a measure of income dispersion; see Yitzhaki, 1979). A good sign is that although private schools are common in Bangladesh, they actually charge the same low fees as public schools due to government funding (UNESCO, 2016, pp. 187–188). Promisingly, substantial efforts to educate rural and poor children have recently been undertaken by Bangladesh’s government and the World Bank (2017). However, in 2014, the upper secondary school completion rate was a paltry 19% (UNESCO, 2017, p. 129). Lack of education serves to perpetuate socioeconomic inequalities across generations. Moreover, although a standardized test at the end of primary school (Grade 5) has been introduced, the exam fails at measuring competence, does not have special resources allocated to it, and cannot even serve as a reliable measure of achievement (UNESCO, 2017, p. 133).

Issues related to language. Bangladesh is homogeneous, with the vast majority speaking Bengali. In fact, this shared language is a source of cultural and nationalistic identity (Mahboob, 2009). Although English has no official status, families with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to speak it, and it is frequently used in higher education, which contributes to inequity. Wealthier children may be advantaged by learning English earlier and more thoroughly, making them even more likely to succeed in college and in their careers.

Issues related to race. I was not able to locate research on race in Bangladesh. However, it is a majority-Muslim country with patriarchal ideologies, according to at least one commentator (Miaji, 2010). We may also speculate that religious minorities (e.g., Hindus) and racial minorities face discrimination in Bangladesh.

Action Plan to Close the Gaps and Achieve Growth

Here, I will lay out actionable steps the US and Bangladesh can take to address the issues.

The United States of America

Gender equality. Spitzer and Aronson (2015) show that social psychological interventions can be useful in countering stereotype threat and other subconscious beliefs. U.S. females already tend to do better in school than their male counterparts. Countering stereotypes about STEM ability and career fields may be critical to closing the gender pay gap. Another important area is in allowing paid time off for expectant and new mothers, both in the private and public sectors (Mandel & Semyonov, 2014).

Socioeconomic status. U.S. socioeconomic inequities are deeply rooted and require attack on many fronts. Personal financial literacy (Lusardi & Mitchell, 2011) is important and is lacking especially among the working poor. This might be addressed by targeted education programs before opening a bank account, receiving a loan, et cetera (Fernandes, Lunch, & Netemeyer, 2014). More importantly, additional government regulation of finance and related industries is needed to prevent institutions from taking advantage of the poor and middle-class (Willis, 2009). There are also many tax loopholes and schemes in the US that allow the wealthy to become even wealthier. Changing these laws may require campaign finance reforms that prevent politicians from receiving funds from wealthy donors, as these politicians go on to write laws that benefit the richest 1%. Finally, a focus on partly or fully subsidized access to medical care, education, housing, and other services for the poor and middle-class is needed.

Language. Although progress is being made in this area, elevating Spanish, the most common second-language in the US, to official status may be a step toward equity for Spanish speakers. This might be best pursued at the individual state level, as individual U.S. states have great authority in governance decisions and policymaking.

Race. Race issues often appear intractable, but continued activism and attention is needed to facilitate a move toward equity. Schools in U.S. states are often funded by property tax revenues, with wealthier whites congregating in suburbs to send their children to “good” schools, creating de-facto segregation that perpetuates advantages for whites while disadvantaging minorities. This could be tackled by changing the U.S. federal government’s Title I funding program to emphasize funding to minority schools, and by states pooling school funds and allocating them on a per-pupil basis rather than based on local tax revenues. Unfortunately, such changes are a politically intractable and many states have school funding mechanisms written in their constitutions or otherwise made inordinately difficult to change.

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh

More funding for education, if administered appropriately and equitably, is important to multiple issues of equity. In 2015, the Campaign for Popular Education appealed to Bangladesh’s prime minister to increase the education budget to 20% of the government’s annual budget by 2021 (UNESCO, 2017, p. 23). Pushing politicians and other people of influence for such commitments is important toward achieving equity. Similar methods were used to bring about the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 in the US.

Gender equality and socioeconomic status. One way to promote gender equality is to offer stipends for families whose girls consistently attend school (Hahn, Islam, Nuzhat, Smyth, & Yang, 2017). This not only contributes to gender equality, but also socioeconomic equality. Stipends can be targeted to at-risk females in rural areas and from poor families. Countering Islamic patriarchal culture (Miaji, 2010; Sarker & Salam, 2011) with progressive social-norms education and public advertising campaigns may also be of use. Encouraging women to start or expand small businesses (e.g., Grameen Bank, 2018) can promote gender equity via financial success. Overall, socioeconomic equality is aided by promoting educational attainment and offering public services and support to the poor. Some of these efforts are underway now (e.g., World Bank, 2017).

Language and race. Although I found limited research in these areas, prioritizing English education not just for wealth Bangladeshi people, but for the poor as well may be helpful. At the same time, there may be more pressing issues that would improve equity for the poor. Recognizing the importance of females’ education, employment, and self-identity is also critical, but requires a shift in religious ideology (Sarker & Salam, 2011).

Comparison Between the US and Bangladesh

Surprisingly, in some ways the US actually seems worse on measures of equity, despite being the world’s leading developed country. The US makes up about half the global economy with just 4% of the global population, yet on all dimensions we looked at (i.e., gender, socioeconomic status, language, and race), there are large inequities. For instance, the US’s Gini coefficient is higher than Bangladesh (41 vs. 32), showing that income inequality is larger in the US (Yitzhaki, 1979). While wealth inequality has increased since the 1970s in the US, in Bangladesh, great strides are being made among multiple dimensions—gender, education, and alleviation of poverty. Nevertheless, Bangladesh still has a long path ahead on the road toward being a middle developing country.

Conclusion

The issues I looked at here not only shed light on equity in the US and Bangladesh, but are also a useful framework to evaluate many nations’ progress toward equity along multiple dimensions. However, although these issues are important, it is paramount that global birth rates and carbon emissions be greatly reduced to prevent a climatic crisis in the coming century. Poverty alleviation, gender equity, and education all result in lowered birth rates. However, we have no practical solution for climate change and much of the damage has already occurred. Nevertheless, this should not be construed as an excuse to do nothing.

References

Barreto, M., Ryan, M. K., & Schmitt, M. T. (Eds.). (2009). Psychology of women book series. The glass ceiling in the 21st century: Understanding barriers to gender equality. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/11863-000

Bécares, L., & Priest, N. (2015). Understanding the influence of race/ethnicity, gender, and class on inequalities in academic and non-academic outcomes among eighth-grade students: Findings from an intersectionality approach. PLoS One, 10(10), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141363

Bondy, J. M., Peguero, A. A., & Johnson, B. E. (2017). The children of immigrants’ academic self-efficacy: The significance of gender, race, ethnicity, and segmented assimilation. Education and Urban Society, 49, 486–517. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124516644049

Fernandes, D., Lynch, J. G., Jr., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2014). Financial literacy, financial education, and downstream financial behaviors. Management Science, 60, 1861–1883. http://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2013.1849

Global Partnership for Education (2018). Education in Bangladesh. Retrieved from https://www.globalpartnership.org/country/bangladesh

Grameen Bank (2018). Credit delivery system. Retrieved from http://www.grameen.com/credit-delivery-system/

Hahn, Y., Islam, A., Nuzhat, K., Smyth, R., & Yang, H.-S. (2018). Education, marriage, and fertility: Long-term evidence from a female stipend program in Bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 66, 383–415. https://doi.org/10.1086/694930

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2007). Financial literacy and retirement preparedness: Evidence and implications for financial education. Business Economics, 10(1), 35–44.

Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, O. S. (2011, June). Financial literacy and retirement planning in the United States. (Working Paper No. 17108). Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w17108

Mahboob, D. (2009). Bengali language movement. Retrieved from https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~mahbo22d/classweb/bengali_language_movement/BLM2.html

Mandel, H., & Semyonov, M. (2014). Gender pay gap and employment sector: Sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970–2010. Demography, 51, 1597–1618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-014-0320-y

Miaji, A. B. (2010). Rural women in Bangladesh: The legal status of women and the relationship between NGOs and religious groups (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1579637

Salma, R. B. (2014). Investigating whether and when English learners are reclassified into mainstream classrooms in the United States: A discrete-time survival analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 51, 220–252. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214528277

Sarker, M. F. H., & Salam, M. A. (2011). The roles of the World Bank and UNESCO in primary education in Bangladesh: A gender based analysis. Society & Change, 5(4), 7–20.

Spitzer, B., & Aronson, J. (2015). Minding and mending the gap: Social psychological interventions to reduce educational disparities. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12067

UNESCO. (2016). Global education monitoring report 2016: Education for people and the planet: Creating sustainable futures for all. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002457/245752e.pdf

UNESCO. (2017). Global education monitoring report 2017/8: Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002593/259338e.pdf

UNICEF. (2016). The state of the world’s children 2016: A fair chance for every child. New York, NY: UNICEF. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_91711.html

Willis, L. E. (2009). Evidence and ideology in assessing the effectiveness of financial literacy education. San Diego Law Review46, 415–458.

World Bank (2017, October 15). Bangladesh: Reaching out of school children II: Implementation status & results report. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/907101508067358869/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-BD-Reaching-Out-of-School-Children-II-P131394-Sequence-No-09.pdf

Yitzhaki, S. (1979). Relative deprivation and the Gini coefficient. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 93, 321–324. https://doi.org/10.2307/1883197

Youjin, H., Islam, A., Nuzhat, K., Smyth, R., & Yang, H.-S. (2018). Education, marriage, and fertility: Long-term evidence from a female stipend program in Bangladesh. Economic Development & Cultural Change, 66, 383–415. https://doi.org/10.1086/694930


  1. In the US, accumulation of wealth (net worth) is far more unequal than annual income. Median statistics look at the 50th percentile, while mean statistics are the average of everyone. The mean on both measures is greatly skewed upward by the wealthiest 1% of Americans, and, in particular, the wealthiest 0.1%. [Go back]
  2. Although not in reference to direct quotes, in several places I include page numbers when citing lengthy UNESCO and UNICEF documents, for ease-of-reference. [Go back]